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Weight and Measures

[U.S. equivalents of the metric below]

UNIT ABBREVIATION
OR SYMBOL
EQUIVALENTS IN OTHER
UNITS OF SAME SYSTEM
METRIC EQUIVALENT
WEIGHT
Avoirdupois2
ton      
short ton
20 short hundredweight, 2000 pounds 0.907 metric ton
long ton
20 long hundredweight, 2240 pounds 1.016 metric ton
hundredweight cwt    
short hundredweight   100 pounds, 0.05 short tons 45.359 kilograms
long hundredweight   112 pounds, 0.05 long ton 50.802 kilograms
pound lb or lb avdp
also #
16 ounces, 7000 grains 0.454 kilogram
ounce oz or oz avdp 16 drams, 437.5 grains, 0.0625 pound 28.350 grams
dram dr or dr avdp 27.344 grains, 0.0625 ounce 1.772 grams
grain gr 0.037 dram, 0.002286 ounce 0.0648 gram
Troy
pound lb t 12 ounces, 240 pennyweight, 5760 grains 0.373 kilogram
ounce oz t 20 pennyweight, 480 grains, 0.083 pound 31.103 grams
pennyweight dwt also pwt 24 grains, 0.05 ounce 1.555 grams
grain gr 0.042 pennyweight, 0.002083 ounce 0.0648 gram
Apothecaries'
pound lb ap 12 ounces, 5760 grains 0.373 kilogram
ounce oz ap 8 drams, 480 grains, 0.083 pound 31.103 grams
dram dr ap 3 scruples, 60 grains 3.888 grams
scruple s ap 20 grains, 0.333 dram 1.296 grams
grain gr 0.05 scruple, 0.002083 ounce, 0.0166 dram 0.0648 gram
CAPACITY
U.S. liquid measure
gallon gal 4 quarts (231 cubic inches) 3.785 liters
quart qt 2 pints (57.75 cubic inches) 0.946 liter
pint pt 4 gills (28.875 cubic inches 473.176 milliliters
gill gi 4 fluid ounces (7.219 cubic inches) 118.294 milliliters
fluid ounce fl oz 8 fluid drams (1.805) cub inches) 29.573 milliliters
fluid dram fl dr 60 minims (0.226 cubic inch) 3.697 milliliters
minim min 1/60 fluid dram (0.003760 cubic inch) 0.061610 milliliter
U.S. dry measure
bushel bu 4 pecks (2150.42 cubic inches) 35.239 liters
peck pk 8 quarts (537.605 cubic inches) 8.810 liters
quart qt 2 pints (67.201 cubic inches) 1.101 liters
pint pt quart (33.600 cubic inches) 0.551 liter
British imperial liquid and dry measure
bushel bu 4 pecks (2219.36 cubic inches) 36.369 liters
peck pk 2 gallons (554.84 cubic inches) 9.092 liters
gallon gal 4 quarts (277.420 cubic inches) 4.546 liters
quart qt 2 pints (69.355 cubic inches) 1.136 liters
pint pt 4 gills (34.678 cubic inches) 568.26 milliliters
gill gi 5 fluid ounces (8.669 cubic inches) 142.066 milliliters
fluid ounce fl oz 8 fluid drams (1.7339 cubic inches) 28.412 milliliters
fluid dram fl dr 60 minims (0.216734 cubic inch) 3.5516 milliliters
minim min 1/60 fluid dram (0.003612 cubic inch) 0.059194 milliliter
LENGTH
mile mi 5280 feet, 1760 yards, 320 rods 1.609 kilometers
rod rd 5.50 yards, 16.5 feet 5.029 meters
yard yd 3 feet, 36 inches 0.9144 meter
foot ft or ' 12 inches, 0.333 yard 30.48 centimeters
inch in or " 0.083 foot, 0.028 yard 2.54 centimeters
AREA
square mile sq mi or mi2 640 acres, 102,400 square rods 2.590 square kilometers
acre   4840 square yards, 43,560 square feet 0.405 hectare, 4047 square meters
square rod sq rd or rd2 30.35 square yards, 0.00625 acre 25.293 square meters
square yard sq yd or yd2 1296 square inches, 9 square feet 0.836 square meter
square foot sq ft or ft2 144 square inches, 0.111 square yard 0.093 square meter
square inch sq in or in2 0.0069 square foot, 0.00077 square yard 6.452 square centimeters
VOLUME
cubic yard cu yd or yd3 27 cubic feet, 46,656 cubic inches 0.765 cubic meter
cubic foot cu ft or ft3 1728 cubic inches, 0.0370 cubic yard 0.028 cubic meter
cubic inch cu in or in3 0.00058 cubic foot, 0.000021 cubic yard 16.387 cubic centimeters

1For U.S. equivalents of the metric unit see Metric System table below.
2The U.S. uses the avoirdupois units as a common system of measuring weight.


Metric System

LENGTH

Unit Abbreviation Number of
Meters
Approximate U.S. Equivalent
kilometer km 1,000 0.62 mile
hectometer hm 100 328.08 feet
dekameter dam 10 32.81 feet
meter m 1 39.37 inches
decimeter dm 0.1 3.94 inches
centimeter cm 0.01 0.39 inch
millimeter mm 0.001 0.039 inch
micrometer m 0.000001 0.000039 inch

AREA

Unit Abbreviation Number of
Square Meters
Approximate U.S. Equivalent
square kilometer sq km or km2 1,000,000 0.3861 square miles
hectare ha 10,000 2.47 acres
are a 100 119.60 square yards
square centimeter sq cm or cm2 0.0001 0.155 square inch

VOLUME

Unit Abbreviation Number of
Cubic Meters
Approximate U.S. Equivalent
cubic meter m3 1 1.307 cubic yards
cubic decimeter dm3 0.001 61.023 cubic inches
cubic centimeter cu cm or
cm3 also cc
0.000001 0.061 cubic inch

CAPACITY

Unit Abbreviation

Number of
Liters

Approximate U.S. Equivalent
      cubic dry liquid
kiloliter kl 1,000 1.31 cubic yards

hectoliter hl 100 3.53 cubic feet 2.84 bushels
dekaliter dal 10 0.35 cubic foot 1.14 pecks 2.64 gallons
liter l 1 61.02 cubic inches 0.908 quart 1.057 quarts
cubic decimeter dm3 1 61.02 cubic inches 0.908 quart 1.057 quarts
deciliter dl 0.10 6.1 cubic inches 0.18 pint 0.21 pint
centiliter cl 0.01 0.61 cubic inch
0.338 fluid ounce
milliliter ml 0.001 0.061 cubic inch
0.27 fluid dram
microliter l 0.000001 0.000061 cubic inch
0.00027 fluid dram

MASS AND WEIGHT

Unit Abbreviation Part of gram Number of
Grams
Approximate U.S. Equivalent
metric ton t

-

1,000,000 1.102 short tons
kilogram kg

-

1,000 2.2046 pounds
hectogram hg

-

100 3.527 ounces
dekagram dag

-

10 0.353 ounce
gram g

-

1 0.035 ounce
decigram dg tenth 0.10 1.543 grains
centigram cg hundredth 0.01 0.154 grain
milligram mg thousandth 0.001 0.015 grain
microgram g millionth 0.000001 0.000015 grain
nanogram ng billionth 0.000000001 0.000000015 grain
picogram pg trillionth 0.000000000001 0.000000000015 grain
femtogram fg quadrillionth 0.000000000000001 0.000000000000015 grain
attogram ag

?

0.000000000000000001 0.000000000000000015 grain

source: Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary http://webster.com/mw/table/weight.htm & http://webster.com/mw/table/metricsy.htm 21feb01

DENOMINATIONS ABOVE ONE MILLION
American System1 British System1
NAME VALUE IN
POWERS
OF TEN
NUMBER
OF
ZEROS2
NUMBER OF
GROUPS OF
THREE 0'S
AFTER 1,000
NAME VALUE IN
POWERS
OF TEN
NUMBER
OF
ZEROS2
POWERS
OF
1,000,000
billion 109 9 2 milliard 109 9 --
trillion 1012 12 3 billion 1012 12 2
quadrillion 1015 15 4 trillion 1018 18 3
quintillion 1018 18 5 quadrillion 1024 24 4
sextillion 1021 21 6 quintillion 1030 30 5
septillion 1024 24 7 sextillion 1036 36 6
octillion 1027 27 8 septillion 1042 42 7
nonillion 1030 30 9 octillion 1048 48 8
decillion 1033 33 10 nonillion 1054 54 9
undecillion 1036 36 11 decillion 1060 60 10
duodecillion 1039 39 12 undecillion 1066 66 11
tredecillion 1042 42 13 duodecillion 1072 72 12
quattuordecillion 1045 45 14 tredecillion 1078 78 13
quindecillion 1048 48 15 quattuordecillion 1084 84 14
sexdecillion 1051 51 16 quindecillion 1090 90 15
septendecillion 1054 54 17 sexdecillion 1096 96 16
octodecillion 1057 57 18 septendecillion 10102 102 17
novemdecillion 1060 60 19 octodecillion 10108 108 18
vigintillion 1063 63 20 novemdecillion 10114 114 19
centillion 10303 303 100 vigintillion 10120 120 20
        centillion 10600 600 100

1The American system of numeration for denominations above one million was modeled on the French system but more recently the French system has been changed to correspond to the German and British systems. In the American system each of the denominations above 1,000 millions (the American billion) is 1,000 times the preceding one (one trillion = 1,000 billions; one quadrillion = 1,000 trillions). In the British system the first denomination above 1,000 millions (the British milliard) is 1,000 times the preceding one, but each of the denominations above 1,000 milliards (the British billion) is 1,000,000 times the preceding one (one trillion = 1,000,000 billions; one quadrillion = 1,000,000 trillions).
2For convenience in reading large numerals, the thousands, millions, etc., are usually separated by commas (21,530; 1,155,465) or especially in technical contexts by spaces (1 155 465). Serial numbers (as social security numbers are usually written with hyphens (042-24-4705).

source: http://www.webster.com/mw/table/number.htm 4jul01

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