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How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis

American Journal of Human Biology v.12, i.2 11feb00

[ Also see Intersexuality Data by ISNA ]

Melanie Blackless, Anthony Charuvastra, Amanda Derryck, Anne Fausto-Sterling *, Karl Lauzanne, Ellen Lee
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island
email: Anne Fausto-Sterling (Anne_Fausto-Sterling@brown.edu)

*Correspondence to Anne Fausto-Sterling, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912

Funded by:
Office of University President Vartan Gregorian

Abstract

The belief that Homo sapiens is absolutely dimorphic with the respect to sex chromosome composition, gonadal structure, hormone levels, and the structure of the internal genital duct systems and external genitalia, derives from the platonic ideal that for each sex there is a single, universally correct developmental pathway and outcome. We surveyed the medical literature from 1955 to the present for studies of the frequency of deviation from the ideal male or female. We conclude that this frequency may be as high as 2% of live births. The frequency of individuals receiving "corrective" genital surgery, however, probably runs between 1 and 2 per 1,000 live births (0.1-0.2%). Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:151-166, 2000. 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Received: 5 November 1997; Revised: 10 December 1998; Accepted: 14 December 1998

source: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/69504033/START 13feb01

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