Margaret Mellon, director of the agricultural and biotechnology program program of the Union of Concerned Scientists in Washington, D.C., holds a law degree and a Ph.D. in molecular biology. She explains her concerns about the effects of GM foods on human health and the environment.
How did you become interested in genetically modified foods?
I became aware of genetic engineering while running a program on toxic chemicals at the Environmental Law Institute in the 1980s. I was initially more positively disposed toward biotechnology than I came to be over the years. Like a lot of folks, I wasn't very critical. But the more I knew about the technology and the deeper the questions I asked about it, the less likely I was to accept at face value the extravagant promises made on its behalf.
I should also say, however, that my colleagues and I at the Union of Concerned Scientists are not opposed to biotechnology. We think its use in drug manufacture, for example, makes a lot of sense. The therapeutic benefits of the new drugs outweigh the risks, and often there aren't any alternatives. But in agriculture, it's different. So far, at least, there are only modest benefits associated with biotechnology products, and it has yet to be shown that the benefits outweigh the risks. And there are exciting alternatives to solving agricultural problems that we are simply ignoring.
Agriculture isn't like medicine. We in the U.S. produce far more food than we need. And we are so wealthy that whatever we can't produce we can buy from somebody else. As a result, there are about 300,000 food products on our grocery shelves and 10,000 new ones added every year. The notion that consumers in the U.S. fundamentally need new biotechnology foods isn't persuasive.
But, of course, many scientists and policy experts argue that we do need biotechnology to feed the world, especially the developing world.
That is an important question to ask because so many people--about 800 million--are undernourished or hungry. But is genetic engineering the best or only solution? We have sufficient food now, but it doesn't get to those who need it. Most hungry people simply can't afford to buy what's already out there even though commodity prices are at all-time lows. How does genetic engineering address the problems of income disparity?
The real tragedy is that the debate about biotechnology is diverting attention from solving the problem of world hunger. I'd like to see people seriously asking the question, "What can we do to help the world's hungry feed themselves?" and then make a list of answers. Better technology, including genetic engineering, would be somewhere on the list, but it would not be at the top. Trade policy, infrastructure and land reform are much more important, yet they are barely mentioned.
Genetic engineering has a place and should not be taken off the table, but I don't believe it is a panacea for world hunger. Treating it as if it is distorts this important debate. It is also amazing to me how quickly some have dismissed the virtues of traditional breeding--the technology that, after all, made us into an agricultural powerhouse.
Can we turn to another potential benefit that people claim for GM foods: agriculture that is more environmentally friendly?
Let's ask a question: What is a green agriculture? Is it one that doesn't depend on pesticides? I think it's a lot more than that, actually. But if we just consider avoiding pesticide use, we now have some data on the impacts of engineered crops. Surveys of American farmers by the Department of Agriculture show that the use of Bt [pest-resistant] corn aimed at the corn borer, for example, hasn't done much to reduce the application of pesticides to corn, because the vast majority of corn acreage isn't treated with pesticide to control that pest.
The introduction of Bt cotton, however, has resulted in a measurable drop in pesticide use. That's good for the environment and good for the farmers who cut their input costs. But this benefit will last only as long as the Bt trait keeps working. I think most scientists expect that the way Bt crops are being deployed will lead--sooner rather than later--to the evolution of resistance in the target pests, which means that the Bt cotton won't work anymore. We are likely to run through Bt cotton just like we ran through all the pesticides before it. So it isn't a durable path to a greener agriculture.
And there are environmental risks out there. Most scientists agree now that gene flow will occur--genes will go from engineered crops to nearby relatives. That means pollen will carry novel genes from the agricultural settings into neighbors' fields or into the wild. Gene flow from herbicide-resistant GM crops into the wild is already leading to the creation of herbicide- resistant weeds in Canada.
What about the health risks of GM foods? Do you see any looming problems?
I know of no reason to say the foods currently on the market are not safe to consume. But I don't have as much confidence as I should in that statement. There was a letter published in the journal Science last June from someone who had searched the literature for peer-reviewed studies comparing GM food to non-GM food. The researcher found something like five studies. That's not enough of a basis on which to claim, from a scientific standpoint, that we know enough to assure ourselves that these foods are going to be safe.
With the little we know about the food safety issue, I would say the biggest concern is allergenicity. Introducing new toxins into food is also a risk. Of course, breeders are going to try to avoid doing that, but plants have lots of toxins in them; as scientists manipulate systems that they don't completely understand, one of the unexpected effects could be turning on genes for toxins. There are rules that govern how genes come together and come apart in traditional breeding. We're not obeying those rules.
So you don't see genetic engineering of crops to be an extension of traditional breeding?
No, not at all. You just can't get an elephant to mate with a corn plant. Scientists are making combinations of genes that are not found in nature.
From a scientific standpoint, there is no dispute that this is fundamentally different from what has been done before. And that it is unnatural. Now, because it's new and unnatural doesn't necessarily mean that it will prove to be more risky. But it is certainly a big enough break with what we have done before to demand an extra measure of caution.
And caution is particularly appropriate where the technology involves our food supply. Lots and lots of people--virtually the whole population--could be exposed to genetically engineered foods, and yet we have only a handful of studies in the peer-reviewed literature addressing their safety. The question is, do we assume the technology is safe based on an argument that it's just a minor extension of traditional breeding, or do we prove it? The scientist in me wants to prove it's safe. Why rest on assumptions when you can go into the lab?
Science can never prove that any technology is 100 percent safe. Will you ever be satisfied that we've tested GM foods enough? And how much risk is acceptable?
Sure, I could be satisfied that GM foods have been adequately tested. But it's premature to address that question now. Nobody is saying, "Look, we've got this large body of peer-reviewed experimental data comparing GM with non-GM foods on a number of criteria that demonstrate the food is safe."
When we have generated such a body of evidence, then there will be an issue of whether what we have is enough. And eventually, if things go well, we'll get to a point where we say, we've been cautious, but now we're going to move ahead--we need to fish or cut bait. But we're nowhere near that point now.
Obviously, we take risks all the time. But why are we taking these risks? If we didn't have an abundant food supply, if we didn't have something like 300,000 food products on our shelves already, then we would have an argument for taking this society-wide risk. But we've got plenty of food. In fact, we've got too much. And although we have many problems associated with our food system, they are not going to be solved by biotechnology.
--Sasha Nemecek, a former editor at Scientific American, is a science
writer based in New York City.
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