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PCE contamination


Exploratory Data on Acrylamide in Foods

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
U. S. Food and Drug Administration
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
4dec02

On April 24, 2002, researchers at the Swedish National Food Administration and Stockholm University reported finding the chemical acrylamide in a variety of fried and oven-baked foods. The initial Swedish research indicates that acrylamide formation is particularly associated with traditional high temperature cooking processes for certain carbohydrate-rich foods. In response to concerns about the potential risk of food-borne acrylamide based on known toxicity of acrylamide at much higher doses than those seen in foods, the FDA began to analyze a variety of U.S. food products for acrylamide. The data presented below are initial and partial results from an ongoing exploratory survey of foods for acrylamide. FDA's action plan and full research agenda are presented at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/pestadd.html#acrylamide. We are presenting this incomplete data set now to inform the public of FDA's progress and to help stimulate research into the formation of acrylamide in foods.

At a public meeting held on September 30, 2002, FDA discussed preliminary findings on acrylamide in a select group of food products to illustrate initial conclusions concerning variability that can be drawn from the early stages in the exploratory survey. Since the public meeting, FDA has continued to study acrylamide in a wide variety of foods, including breads, cereals, and snack foods in an effort to understand the occurrence of this chemical in the U.S. food supply. FDA will continue to investigate how acrylamide is formed in food, seek to identify ways to reduce acrylamide levels, and study the human health risk of consuming acrylamide in foods. FDA is collaborating with other federal public health agencies, international partners, academia, consumers, and the food-processing industry to coordinate efforts related to acrylamide in foods.

These data include the data that were the basis for the graphs presented at the September 30, 2002, public meeting as well as additional data collected through November 15, 2002.

These results indicate acrylamide levels in individual purchased food products.

These data are exploratory and should not be taken to indicate the distribution of acrylamide levels in U.S. foods, or as an indicator of food product choices by consumers.

In relation to the level of sampling that is needed to understand exposure and risk, the data cover a limited number of food categories, a limited number of products in those categories, and a limited number of brands.

The data generally do not address unit to unit variation or lot to lot variation.

Also, differences in acrylamide levels between foods or even between brands at this early point in the survey do not necessarily indicate differences in exposure or potential risk that would be experienced by consumers. When estimating exposure and potential risk it is important to consider the amount of the food consumed and the day to day variation in levels, in addition to the level of acrylamide measured at a particular time.

Notes:

(1) ND = nondetect

(2) The limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 10 ppb. Values below the LOQ but above 0 are reported as <10 ppb.

(3) Dried and/or powdered products (baking cocoa, dried potatoes, coffee, certain cereals, powdered formulas, and gravy and seasoning mixes) were tested as purchased.

(4) Baked products were baked according to the manufacturers' directions. Toasted products were not cooked in a standardized fashion. Fried products (tortillas) were fried for 1 minute at 155 C. Some products are intended to be eaten without further cooking (e.g., bread); other products, although precooked by the manufacturer, are intended to be eaten only with further cooking (e.g., chicken pieces and frozen french fries). The graphs presented at the September 30, 2002, public meeting on acrylamide levels in food contain values for products as commonly eaten only, not both uncooked and cooked values.


Table 1: Acrylamide values in food product samples Product Acrylamide (ppb)

Baby food 
Beech Nut Stage 2 Apples & Cherries 			ND 
Gerber 2nd Foods Apples & Cherries 			ND 
Beech Nut Stage 2 Butternut Squash 			22 
Gerber 2nd Foods Squash 				ND 
Beech Nut Stage 2 Carrots & Peas 			17 
Gerber 2nd Foods Carrots & Sweet Peas 			39 
Beech Nut Stage 1 Oatmeal Cereal for Baby 		ND 
Carnation Baby Cereal with Formula Oatmeal 		ND 
Gerber Single Grain Oatmeal Cereal for Baby 		ND 
Beech Nut Rice Cereal for Baby 				<10  
Carnation Baby Cereal with Formula Rice  		<10 
Beech Nut Stage 2 Tender Golden Sweet Potatoes 		37 
Gerber Tender Harvest Organic Sweet Potatoes (lot 1) 	62 
Gerber Tender Harvest Organic Sweet Potatoes (lot 2) 	121 
Gerber 2nd Foods Sweet Potatoes 			68 
Beech Nut Stage 2 Vegetables & Chicken 			75 
Gerber 2nd Foods Vegetable Chicken Dinner 		30 
Gerber 2nd Foods Green Beans 				26 
Gerber Finger Foods Biter Biscuits 			130 
Gerber Finger Foods Fruit Wagon Wheels 			20 
Gerber Graduates for Toddlers Animal Crackers 		60 
Gerber Mixed Cereal for Baby 				ND 
Nabisco Arrowroot Biscuit (baby food) 			113 
Nabisco Zwieback Toast (baby food) 			20 

* See Note Below
 
French fries 
Arby's french fries 					252 
Burger King french fries, location 1 			197 
Burger King french fries, location 2 			220 
Burger King french fries, location 3 			369 
Checkers french fries, location 1 			257 
Checkers french fries, location 2 			407 
Chick-fil-A french fries 				389 
Fuddruckers french fries, location 1 			452 
Fuddruckers french fries, location 2 			346 
KFC french fries, location 1 				313 
KFC french fries, location 2 				270 
KFC french fries, location 3 				162 
KFC french fries, location 4 				117 
McDonald's french fries, location 1 			193 
McDonald's french fries, location 2 			328 
McDonald's french fries, location 3 			155 
McDonald's french fries, location 4 			326 
McDonald's french fries, location 5 			245 
McDonald's french fries, location 6 			270 
McDonald's french fries, location 7 			497 
Popeyes french fries, location 1 			301 
Popeyes french fries, location 2 			484 
Popeyes french fries, location 3 			1030 
Popeyes french fries, location 4 			610 
Wendy's french fries, location 1 			302 
Wendy's french fries, location 2 			157 
Wendy's french fries, location 3 			254 
Wendy's french fries, location 4 			260 
Wendy's french fries, location 5 			169 
McCain Crinkle Cut french fries (not baked) 		49 
McCain Crinkle Cut french fries (baked) 		356 
Ore Ida Golden Crinkles (not baked) 			74 
Ore Ida Golden Crinkles (baked) 			441 
Lamb Weston Inland Valley French Fries (not baked) 	212 
Lamb Weston Inland Valley French Fries (baked) 		798 
Ore Ida Golden Fries (not baked) 			107 
Ore Ida Golden Fries (baked) 				1098 
Richfood French Fried Potatoes (not baked) 		21 
Richfood French Fried Potatoes (baked) 			438 
Lamb Weston Inland Valley Fajita Fries (not baked) 	200 
Lamb Weston Inland Valley Fajita Fries (baked) 		1325 
Ore Ida Zesties! (not baked) 				67 
Ore Ida Zesties! (baked) 				572 
Linden Farms French Fries Shoestring Style (not baked) 	70 
Linden Farms French Fries Shoestring Style (baked) 	1036 
Ore Ida Fast Food Fries (not baked) 			79 
Ore Ida Fast Food Fries (baked) 			332 
Ore Ida Crispers! (not baked) 				218 
Ore Ida Crispers! (baked) 				616 
Ore Ida Golden Twirls (not baked) 			20 
Ore Ida Golden Twirls (baked) 				119 
Ore Ida Tater Tots (not baked) 				199 
Ore Ida Tater Tots (baked) 				255 

* See Note Below
 
Potato chips 
Good Health Natural Foods Olive Oil Potato Chips Plain 	385 
Herr's Crisp 'N Tasty Potato Chips 			468 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Oct. 15 		249 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Oct. 29 		318 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 5, bag 1 	319 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 5, bag 2 	398 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 5, bag 3 	338 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 5, bag 4 	337 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 12, bag 1 	432 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 12, bag 2 	462 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 12, bag 3 	462 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 19, bag 1 	280 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 19, bag 2 	301 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 19, bag 3 	283 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 19, bag 4 	258 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 26, bag 1 	257 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 26, bag 2 	262 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 26, bag 3 	275 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Nov. 26, bag 4 	303 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 3, bag 1 	343 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 3, bag 2 	333 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 3, bag 3 	291 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 3, bag 4 	336 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 10, bag 1 	425 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 10, bag 2 	463 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 10, bag 3 	490 
Lay's Classic Potato Chips, code date Dec. 10, bag 4 	549 
Utz Crisp All Natural Potato Chips, lot 1 		879 
Utz Crisp All Natural Potato Chips, lot 2 		433 
Grandma Utz's Handcooked Potato Chips 			146 
Kettle Chips Lightly Salted Natural Gourmet Potato Chps 1265 
Lay's Kettle Cooked Mesquite BBQ Flavored Potato Chips 	198 
Utz's Home Style Kettle-Cooked Potato Chips 		117 
Lay's WOW! Original potato chips 			415 
Ruffles WOW! Original potato chips 			270 
Ruffles Original potato chips 				292 
Wavy Lay's Original Potato Chips 			198 
Baked! Lay's Original Naturally Baked Potato Crisps 	1096 
Terra Sweet Potato Chips 				767 
Route 11 Sweet Potato Chips 				2762 

* See Note Below
 
Infant formulas 
Carnation Good Start Milk-Based Infant Formula (liquid)	ND 
Carnation Good Start Milk-Based Infant Formula (pwdrd) 	ND 
Enfamil Milk-Based Infant Formula with Iron (liquid) 	ND 
Enfamil Milk-Based Infant Formula with Iron (powdered) 	<10 
Similac Infant Formula with Iron (liquid) 		ND 
Similac Infant Formula with Iron (powdered) 		<10 
Carnation Alsoy Soy Infant Formula (liquid) 		ND 
Carnation Alsoy Soy Infant Formula (powdered) 		ND 
Enfamil ProSobee Soy Formula (liquid) 			ND 
Enfamil ProSobee Soy Formula (powdered) 		ND 
Isomil Infant & Toddler Soy Formula with Iron(powdered) ND 
Isomil Soy Formula with Iron (liquid) 			ND 
Protein foods Checkers Chicken Pieces 			22 
Tyson Crispy Chicken Strips (not baked) 		32 
Tyson Crispy Chicken Strips (baked) 			35 
Gorton's Tenders Extra Crunchy fish fillets (not baked) 25 
Gorton's Tenders Extra Crunchy fish fillets (baked) 	30 
Mrs. Paul's Crispy Fish Fillets (not baked) 		13 
Mrs. Paul's Crispy Fish Fillets (baked) 		12 
Van de Kamp's Crunchy Fish Sticks (not baked) 		ND 
Van de Kamp's Crunchy Fish Sticks (baked) 		ND 
Pastene Fancy Light Tuna in Olive Oil 			ND 
Progresso Light Tuna in Olive Oil 			ND 
Boca Burgers Grilled Vegetable burgers (not baked) 	58 
Boca Burgers Grilled Vegetable burgers (baked) 		116 
Boca Nuggets Original Chik'n (not baked) 		<10 
Boca Nuggets Original Chik'n (baked) 			<10 
Morningstar Farms Breakfast Patties (not baked) 	ND 
Morningstar Farms Better 'n Burgers (not baked) 	ND 
Morningstar Farms Better 'n Burgers (baked) 		ND 
Worthington Veja-Links (uncooked) 			ND 
Worthington Veja-Links (microwaved) 			ND 
Worthington Veja-Links (toasted) 			ND 

* See Note Below
 
Breads and bakery products 
Pepperidge Farm Dark Pump Pumpernickel (not toasted) 	34 
Pepperidge Farm Dark Pump Pumpernickel (toasted) 	364 
Pepperidge Farm Nat.Whle Grn Whole Wheat (not toasted) 	ND 
Pepperidge Farm Nat.Whle Grn Whole Wheat (toasted) 	59 
Pepperidge Farm Original White Bread (not toasted) 	36 
Pepperidge Farm Original White Bread (toasted) 		216 
Sara Lee Honey Wheat Bagels (not toasted) 		27 
Sara Lee Honey Wheat Bagels (toasted) 			57 
Sara Lee Plain Mini Bagels (not toasted) 		58 
Sara Lee Plain Mini Bagels (toasted) 			343 
Contadina Bread Crumbs Three Cheese 			39 
Super G Bread Crumbs Regular Style 			42 
Shoppers Food Warehouse Cake Doughnut 			24 
Shoppers Food Warehouse French Twirl Doughnut 		ND 
Shoppers Food Warehouse Plain Doughnut  		14 
Indian flat bread (from local restaurant) 		125 
Boboli Italian Pizza Crust (not baked) 			33 
Boboli Italian Pizza Crust (baked) 			24 
La Banderita Corn Tortillas (not fried) 		10 
La Banderita Corn Tortillas (fried) 			13 
La Banderita Flour Tortillas (not fried) 		<10 
La Banderita Flour Tortillas (fried) 			15 

* See Note Below
 
Cereals 
General Mills Cheerios 					266 
General Mills Cinnamon Toast Crunch 			61 
General Mills Honey Nut Cheerios 			146 
General Mills Lucky Charms 				176 
Kellogg's Corn Flakes 					77 
Kellogg's Corn Pops 					71 
Kellogg's Frosted Flakes 				52 
Kellogg's Frosted Mini-Wheats 				78 
Kellogg's Raisin Bran 					156 
Kellogg's Rice Krispies 				47 

Snack foods (other than potato chips) 
Chifles Fried Pork Rinds Smokehouse Flavored 		12 
Gen Soy Zesty Barbeque Soy Crisps 			17 
Super G Cheddar Cheese Corn Twists 			133 
Super G Microwave Popping Corn (popped) 		181 
Orville Redenbacher's Gourmet Popping 			157 
Corn Movie Theater Butter (popped) 
Good Health Natural Foods Honey Dijon 			1168 
Mustard Julienne Potato Stix
Herr's Bite Size Dippers Tortilla Chips 		117 
Herr's Extra Thin Pretzels 				309 
Utz Unsalted Sourdough Specials 			70 
Snyder's of Hanover Veggie Crisps 			832 
Terra Stix 						990 
Utz White Corn Tortillas 				111 

* See Note Below
 
Gravies and seasonings 
Heinz Home Style Savory Beef Gravy (canned) 		ND 
Heinz Home Style Classic Chicken Gravy (canned) 	ND 
Butterball Brown Gravy Mix 				ND 
McCormick Mushroom Gravy Mix 				ND 
McCormick Turkey Gravy Mix 				ND 
Kame Dark Soy Sauce 					ND 
Kikkoman Soy Sauce 					ND 
Colgin Natural Hickory Liquid Smoke 			54 
Colgin Natural Pecan Liquid Smoke 			151 
Stubb's Mesquite Liquid Smoke 				38 
Accent Flavor Enhancer 					ND 
Char Crust Roto Roast Dry-Rub Seasoning 		ND 
Wyler's Shakers Beef & French Onion Flavor 		ND 
Instant Bouillon  
Nuts and nut butters Blue Diamond Roasted 		236 
Salted Almonds 
Blue Diamond Smokehouse Almonds 			457 
Planters Salted Almonds 				249 
Planters Smoked Almonds 				339 
Planters Halves and Pieces Lightly Salted Cashews 	ND 
Super G Dry Roasted Peanuts Unsalted 			28 
Super G Honey Roasted Peanuts 				ND 
Super G Party Peanuts 					ND 
Arrowhead Mills Crunchy Peanut Butter 			114 
Jif Creamy Peanut Butter 				64 
Peter Pan Plus Creamy Peanut Butter 			89 
Richfood Creamy Peanut Butter 				79 
Smucker's Natural Creamy Peanut Butter 			125 

* See Note Below
 
Crackers
Red Oval Farms Mini Stoned Wheat Thins 			26 
Dare Breton Thin Wheat Crackers 			300 
Super G Unsalted Tops Crackers 				41 
Keebler Town House Crackers Reduced Fat 		130 
Pepperidge Farm Cheddar Goldfish 			57 
Streit's Lightly Salted Matzos 				182 
Wasa Original Crispbread Fiber Rye 			504 
Chocolate products Droste Cocoa 			ND 
Ghirardelli Unsweetened Cocoa 				316 
Hershey's Cocoa 					909 
Hershey's European Style Dutch Processed Cocoa 		58 
Baker's Bittersweet Baking Chocolate Squares 		104 
Ghirardelli Bittersweet Chocolate Baking Bar 		93 
Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bar 				ND 
Hershey's Chocolate Milk Mix 				ND 
Nestle Nesquik Chocolate Flavor 			45 
Land O Lakes Cocoa Classics Chocolate Supreme 		<10 
Artificially Flavored 
Super G Hot Cocoa Mix Milk Chocolate Flavor 		24 
Swiss Miss Milk Chocolate Flavor Hot Cocoa Mix 		ND 
Jell-O Chocolate Flavor Instant Pudding & Pie Filling 	15 
Super G Chocolate Flavor Instant Pudding & Pie Filling 	17 
Canned fruits and vegetables Mott's Apple Sauce 	<10 
Richfood Apple Sauce Cinnamon 				<10 
B&M Original Brick Oven Baked Beans 			83 
B&M Vegetarian 99% Fat Free Brick Oven Baked Beans 	70 
Green Giant Sliced Mushrooms Broiled in Butter 		ND 
Super G Mushrooms Stems and Pieces 			ND 
Cedar Chick Peas 					ND 
Libby's Pumpkin 					25 
Cookies Archway Oatmeal Cookies 			36 
Nabisco Chips Ahoy! Chewy Chocolate Chip Cookies 	97 
Nabisco Chocolate Teddy Grahams 			199 
Stella D'Oro Anisette Toast Cookies 			107 

* See Note Below
 
Coffee
Maxwell House Slow Roast (ground, not brewed) 		209 
Starbucks Coffee Columbia Ground (ground, not brewed) 	175 
Super G Instant Coffee (powdered, not brewed) 		188 
Folgers Classic Decaf Coffee Crystals 			351 
(crystals, not brewed) 
Maxwell House Instant Coffee (powder, not brewed) 	263 
Medaglia D'Oro Caffe' Espresso Coffee 			179 
(ground, not brewed) 
Frozen vegetables Hanover Premium 			<10 
Petite Asparagus Spears 
Hanover Blue Lake French Style Green Beans 	`	<10 
Hanover Premium Petite Whole Carrots 			<10 
Super G Cooked Squash 					<10 
Dried foods Knorr Taste Breaks Soup Chicken 		22 
Noodle Flavor 
Maruchan Instant Lunch Ramen Noodles with 		52 
Vegetables Chicken Flavor 
Nissin Cup Noodles Chicken Flavor 			136 
Lipton Noodles & Sauce Creamy Chicken 			17 
Lipton Asian Side Dishes Teriyaki Noodles 		34 
Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Dinner 				11 
Super G Macaroni & Cheese Dinner 			12 
Lipton Recipe Secrets Onion Soup & Dip Mix 		1184 
Super G Onion Recipe Soup Mix 				90 
Lipton Rice & Sauce Herb & Butter 			<10 

* See Note Below
 
Dairy  
Grace Sweetened Condensed Milk 				ND 
Carnation Malted Milk Original 				43 
Carnation Insant Nonfat Dry Milk 			11 
Saco Cultured Buttermilk Blend 				<10 
Miscellaneous Fuddruckers Onion Rings 			13 
General Mills Lucky Charms marshmallows 		ND 
Idahoan Butter & Herb Mashed Potatoes 			ND 
Jell-O Gelatin Dessert Raspberry Artificial Flavor 	<10 
Super G Raspberry Artificial Flavor Gelatin Dessert 	<10 
KFC Mashed Potatoes 					<10 
Kraft Quick Cooking Minute Tapioca 			<10 
Mrs. Richardson's Butterscotch Caramel Topping 		ND 
Idaho Spuds Mashed Potatoes 				ND 
Super G Non-Dairy Coffee Creamer 			<10 

* These data are exploratory and do not show the distribution of acrylamide in foods. 
  They cover a limited number of food categories, products, and brands. 
  They generally do not address unit to unit variation or lot to lot variation.

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